RNA Virus Biology and Reverse Genetic Infectious Clone Design in the Production of Vaccines

RNA Virus Biology and Reverse Genetic Infectious Clone Design in the Production of Vaccines



RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal diseases in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for the manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and hopefully safe viral therapeutics and vaccines.


For approximately 35 years, I am trying to draw the attention of colleagues and the public alike: new diseases which are gen-based and which are caused by the use of retroviruses in vaccines (like the flu jab).

Nowadays, in all vaccines, many additives are being added to improve efficacy, we have been told. To improve vaccines, retroviruses have been chosen (as wheel barrels) to implement certain sequences into the host’s chromosomes to stay there for the rest of one’s life. It is, therefore, gene manipulation. Retroviruses are very potent to infect and mutate very easily.

What is a retrovirus? We all know HIV, is the causing agent of severe immune suppression leading to AIDS.  HIV is a retrovirus. A retrovirus is the only virus that has a specific mechanism to build its own RNA into the genes of a host cell and the enzyme which does this is called the “reverse RNA transcriptase” The animal world forms a reservoir of retroviruses that are not pathogenic (yet?) for humans. By using “non-pathogenic” retroviruses in vaccines, it is like opening Pandora’s Box. Retroviruses mutate very easily and rapidly. Seemingly harmless retroviruses from the animal world can be used as vectors to “improve” the efficacy if vaccines but a minute mutation can turn this seemingly harmless retrovirus into a very significant pathogen (HIV from SIV is a good example).

All retroviruses have in common that the cause in humans 1) severe immunosuppression 2) severe lung disease 3) various forms of fatal cancers (especially lymphomas and leukemia) and 4) brain damage, like dementia, peripheral neuropathies, and MS-like autoimmune diseases.

Is this a coincidence? Or what I warned for years? Using parts of retroviruses as wheel barrels (Vectors) to target gene manipulation with non-pathogenic viruses is Pandora’s box.

Pfizer started a study with a gene-manipulated vaccine against COVID-19 in June 2020. As required, they started hastily with a phase-1/phase-2 study and the study protocol foresaw enrolling approx. 44.000 volunteers. The Phase-1 /-2 study was closed and the first evaluation of was published on November 9th, 2020.

The vaccine trial was found to be more than 90% effective in preventing COVID-19 in participants without evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first interim efficacy analysis

The analysis evaluated 94 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in trial participants since the beginning of the trail

The study enrolled 43,538 participants, with 42% having diverse backgrounds (age, ethnicity, etc), and no serious safety concerns have been observed so far; safety and additional efficacy data continue to be collected over a period of 2 years.

Studying the efficacy of a vaccine is called a phase-3 study and takes at least 4 years.

Submission for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is planned for soon after the required safety milestone is achieved, which is currently expected to occur in the third week of November.

Developments in Viral Vector-Based Vaccines; authors Takehiro Ura, Kenji Okuda, and Masaru Shimada in Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Sep; 2(3): 624–641 / Published online 2014 Jul 29. doi: 10.3390 / vaccines2030624

Christopher C. Stobart and Martin L. Moore; in Viruses. 2014 Jul; 6(7): 2531–2550 / Published online 2014 Jun 25. doi: 10.3390 / v6072531

Keywords: RNA virus, reverse genetics, vaccines


  • RNA Viruses (like Corona) are known to mutate very rapidly and change their genetic make-up
  • Vaccines teach (force) the immune system to produce an antibody that fits exactly to the receptor (spike) of the virus and thus, blocking the virus from any further action.
  • An antibody fits like a key in a slot: does the lock change minimally so the key does not fit any longer?
  • RNA viruses mutate rapidly and very likely, the Coronavirus which caused COVID-19 is no longer around but has mutated. That is why we vaccinate against the flu for 55 years but the flu epidemics are still around as before.
  • The general hope is that “one day” there will be an effective vaccine but nobody pays attention to the host response: the healthier a person is the better chances that person has to defeat any infection and other health problems like cancer.
  • Thus, more attention should be given to lifestyle and nutrition, and poisons from a polluted environment.


Robert Gorter, MD, PhD, etc.







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