Islam marriages and wives of prophet

In Islam, marriage is a legal contract between two people of opposite sex. Both the groom and the bride are to consent to the marriage of their own free wills. A formal, binding contract is considered integral to a religiously valid Islamic marriage, and outlines the rights and responsibilities of the groom and bride. There must be two Muslim witnesses of the marriage contract. Divorce (also called Tallaq in Arabic) is permitted and can primarily be issued by the groom.

However, the bride also has the right to initiate the demand for the divorce. The actual rules of marriage and divorce (often part of Personal Status Laws) can differ from country to country, based on codified law and the school of jurisprudence that is largely followed in that country.

islam marriages

A Pakistani bride signing her marriage certificate

In addition to the usual marriage until death or divorce, there is a different fixed-term marriage known as zawāj al-mutʻah (“temporary marriage”) permitted only by the Twelver branch of Shia Islam for a pre-fixed period; even for a few hours. There is also Nikah Misyar, a non-temporary marriage with the removal of some conditions permitted by some Sunni Muslims, which usually amount to the wife waiving her right to sustenance from her husband.

Islam is totally opposed to monasticism and celibacy. Marriage is an act of Sunnah in Islam and is strongly recommended, or even ordered in many societies.

Pre-Islamic Arabia

In Pre-Islamic Arabia a variety of different marriage practices existed. The most common and recognized types of marriage at this time consisted of: marriage by agreement, marriage by capture, marriage by purchase, marriage by inheritance and “Mot’a” or temporary marriage.

Prior to Islam, in the Arab world, women could not make decisions based on their own beliefs, and had little control over their marriages. They were never bound by contract for marriage or custody of children and their consent was never sought. Women were seldom allowed to divorce their husbands and their view was not regarded for either a marriage or divorce. If they got divorced, women were not legally allowed to go by their maiden name again. They could not own or inherit property or objects, even if they were facing poverty or harsh living conditions. Women were treated less like people and more like possessions of men. They, however, could be inherited and moved from home to home depending on the wants and needs of their husband and his family. Essentially, women were slaves to men and made no decisions on anything, whether it be something that directly impacted them or not. If their husband died, his son from a previous marriage was entitled to his wife if the son wanted her. The woman had no choice in the matter unless she was able to pay him for freedom, which was, in most cases, impossible.[6]

One of the most extraordinary practices that took place was that if a husband died, his son could inherit his wife (his own mother) to be his own wife. Marriage by inheritance, and incestuous relationships between a son and his own mother was “a widespread custom throughout Arabia, including Medina and Mecca.” If the son of a deceased husband (his deceased father) did not want his wife (own mother), the woman was forced to leave her home and live in a hut for one year. The hut that the women lived in was kept dark with very poor air circulation. After one year, the woman was allowed to come out of the hut, and people were permitted to heave camel excrement at her. People in Mecca would blame her for refusing to sleep with her own son.

In 586 AD women were acknowledged to be human. Although this appears to be a change in the status of women in Arabia, they were only acknowledged as human with the sole purpose of serving men. They were considered human, but were not given the same rights as men and were not treated equally in respect to men. In fact, it was common for a new father to be outraged upon learning that his baby was a female. It was believed that the birth of a girl was a bad omen, and men thought that daughters would bring disgrace and misfortune to the family. Because baby girls were thought to be evil, many of them were sold in slavery or buried alive.

Marriage by agreement

The first of the four common marriages that existed in pre-Islamic Arabia was marriage by agreement. This consisted of an agreement between a man and his future wife’s family. This marriage could be within the tribe or between two families of different tribes.

Some women were forbidden from marrying outside of their tribe and had to either marry another member of the tribe or a stranger who would agree to live with the tribe.

In the case that involved a man and woman of two different tribes, the woman would leave her family and permanently reside with her husband. The children of these marriages were considered part of their father’s tribe, unless a different arrangement had previously been made which returned the children to their mother’s tribe.

The reason for inter-tribal marriages was to ensure the protection and possession of the children the couple would produce. Women in inter-tribal marriages had more freedom and retained the right to dismiss or divorce their husbands at any time. The women had precise rituals they used to inform their husbands of their dismissal, such as this: “if they lived in a tent they turned it around, so that if the door faced east, it now faced west, and when the man saw this, he knew that he was dismissed and did not enter.”

Marriage by capture

The second of the common marriage practices that existed in pre-Islamic Arabia was marriage by capture (“Ba’al” in Arabic). Most often taking place during times of war, marriage by capture occurred when women were taken captive by men from other tribes and placed on the slave market of Mecca. From the slave market these women were sold into marriage or slavery. In captive marriages, men bought their wives and had complete control over them. Women in these marriages had no freedom and were subjected to following their husbands’ orders. These women became their husbands’ property and had no right to divorce or dismissal of their husbands. They thus completely lost any freedom they may previously have had. Her husband had absolute authority over her, including the exclusive right to divorce. The husbands in these marriages were classified as their wives’ lords or owners and had complete control to his wife and her actions.

Marriage by purchase

The third of the common marriage practices that existed in pre-Islamic Arabia was “marriage by purchase.” This was a more traditional marriage practice. These marriages consisted of the groom or groom’s father paying the bride “Mahr”, or a dowry; to marry them. The dowry usually consisted of items like camels and horses. Women in “purchased” marriages faced the same oppression as women who were forced into marriages by capture. This practice may have led to a decrease in female infanticide due to the wealth a family could derive from selling their daughter. Women in these marriages were subject to their husbands’ control and had very few rights, or dignity.

Marriage by inheritance

The fourth of the common marriage practices that existed in pre-Islamic Arabia was “marriage by inheritance”. Arabia was a male-dominated society. Women had no status of any kind other than as sex objects and cleaning house and stable. The number of women a man could marry was not fixed. When a man died, his son inherited all his wives except his own mother. Such “marriage” was “a widespread custom throughout Arabia, including Medina and Mecca”. This practice also involved the possessions of a deceased man’s wife being passed to his son. In such a case, the son could keep his father’s other wives for himself or arrange the above-described marriages by purchase. In these cases, as in the majority of marriage practices at this time, the woman had few or no rights and was required to follow the orders of her inheritor; usually the son(s).

Reforms after Islam

See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence

Prophet Muhammad had reformed the laws and procedures of the common marriage practices that existed during his prophet hood. The rules of “marriage by agreement (marriage through consent)” and “marriage by capture” were reformed and a strict set of rules and regulations were put in place. The practices of “marriage by purchase” and “marriage by inheritance” were forbidden. Several chapters and verses from the Quran were revealed which banned such practices.

Hadith about marriage

Under the Arabian pre-Islamic law, no limitations were set on men’s rights to marry or to obtain a divorce. Islamic law, however, restricted polygamy (Quran 4:3). The institution of marriage, characterized by unquestioned male superiority in the pre-Islamic law of status, was redefined and changed into one in which the woman was somewhat of an interested partner. ‘For example, the dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property.’ Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a “status” but rather as a “contract”. The essential elements of the marriage contract were now an offer by the man, an acceptance by the woman, and the performance of such conditions as the payment of dowry. The woman’s consent was imperative. Furthermore, the offer and acceptance had to be made in the presence of at least two witnesses. A man was not allowed to leave his wife and marry someone else just because the other women pleased him more. A married woman also had rights over the husband as stated by Muhammad that “You have your rights upon your wives and they have their rights upon you. Your right is that they shall not allow anyone you dislike, to trample your bed and do not permit those whom you dislike to enter your home. Their right is that you should treat them well in the matter of food and clothing.”

Conditions

Islamic marriages require acceptance, in Arabic: قبول‎‎ qubūl, of the groom, the bride and the consent of the custodian (wali) of the bride. The contract of an Islamic marriage is concluded between the guardian (wali) of the bride and bridegroom, not between bridegroom and bride. The wali of the bride is normally a male relative of the bride, preferably her father. Guardian (wali) of the bride can only be a practicing Muslim. The bride normally is present at the signing of the marriage contract, but this is not mandatory.

The Wali mujbir (Arabic: ولي مجبر‎‎) is a technical term of Islamic law which denotes the guardian of a bride. In traditional Islam, the literal definition of “wali”, which means “force”, is used. But just as English words have multiple meanings under different context, so does the word “wali”. In this context, it is meant that the silence of the bride is considered consent. In most schools of Islamic law, only the father or the paternal grandfather of the bride can be wali mujbir.

If the conditions are met and a mahr and contract are agreed upon, an Islamic marriage ceremony, or wedding, can take place. Nowadays, the marital contract often is also signed by the bride, whereas technically it only requires verbal agreement by both parties, wali and bridegroom. The consent of the bride is mandatory even though in most Muslim areas in the world the local culture dictates it as not to be so if her wali, her father or paternal grandfather (wali mujbir), agrees to the marriage. Hadith the Islamic marriage is then declared publicly, by a responsible person after delivering a sermon to counsel and guide the couple. It is not required, though customary, that the person marrying the couple should be religiously qualified. Bridegroom can himself deliver the sermon in presence of representatives of both sides if he is religiously so educated as the story goes about Imam Muhammad bin Ali around 829 and recently in Kashmir in 2013 by Muhammad Aasif bin Ali after more than eleven centuries. It is typically followed by a celebratory reception in line with the couple’s or local customs, which could either last a couple of hours or precede the wedding and conclude several days after the ceremony.

The Quran tells believers that even if they are poor they should marry to protect themselves from immorality (Quran 24:33). The Quran asserts that marriage is a legitimate way to satisfy one’s sexual desire. Islam recognizes the value of sex and companionship and advocates marriage as the foundation for families and channeling the fulfillment of a base need. Marriage is highly valued and regarded as being half of one’s faith, according to a saying of Muhammad. Whether marriage is obligatory or merely allowed has been explored by several scholars, and agreed that “If a person has the means to marry and has no fear of mistreating his wife or of committing the unlawful if he does marry, then marriage in his case is mustahabb (preferred).”

The marriage contract is concluded between the wali, or guardian, of the bride and bridegroom, not between bridegroom and bride. The wali of the bride can only be a free Muslim. The wali of the bride is normally a male relative of the bride, preferably her father. If the bride is a virgin, the wali mujbir, that is her father or paternal grandfather, cannot force the bride into the marriage against her proclaimed will; according to most scholars.

The notable example to this is the Hanafi school (the first and still largest of the four classical schools of Islamic thought), which holds that a bride’s permission is required if she has reached puberty. They also hold that if a bride was forced into marriage before reaching puberty; then upon attaining puberty, she has the option to nullify the marriage if she wishes (sic). A wali other than the father or the paternal grandfather of the bride then called wali mukhtar, needs the consent of the bride according to the majority of scholars. If the bride is silent about the issue, i.e. her wali expressed his intention to marry her off to a certain man, and she did not object to it; then consent is assumed via her lack of objection.

However, if she would object, the consequence would likely be the she would be severely punished or killed by male members of her own family as she offended the honor if her own family.

For all schools of Islamic jurisprudence the systematization of their school is the guideline for their decision, not single hadiths, that liberal Muslims often cite. Two of these hadiths are the following:

Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet said: “A non-virgin woman may not be married without her command, and a virgin may not be married without her permission; and it is permission enough for her is to remain silent (because of her natural shyness).” (Al-Bukhari:6455)

It is reported in a hadith that A’ishah related that she asked the Prophet : “In the case of a young girl whose parents marry her off, should her permission be sought or not?” He replied: “Yes, she must give her permission.” She then said: “But a virgin would be shy, O Messenger of Allaah!” He replied: “Her silence is (considered as) her permission.” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim, & Others). Source: ‘Al-Masaa’il Al-Maardeeniyyah’ by: Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah

International human rights responses

Children in traditional Muslim cultures who defy their parents’ wishes may in practice, suffer penalties supported by the Muslim community. International awareness, campaigns and organizations such as the U.K.’s Forced Marriage Unit have recognized the severity of this human rights issue and their rescue and support services extend beyond the borders of U.K. territories. Some countries have instituted prison time for parents who try to coerce their children into such unions.

Prohibition based on religion

Quran states:

Don’t marry Mushrik women until they believe. A believing slave woman is better than Mushrik even if she pleases you. And don’t marry Mushrik men until they believe. A believing slave man is better than a Mushrik even if he pleases you. They call towards fire and God calls you towards paradise and forgiveness with his will and make clear his verses for people so that they may understand. (Al-Quran 2:221)

A Muslim women can’t marry any Kafir (non-Muslim). A Muslim man can marry People of the Book (Jew, Christian, or Muslim), but not Mushrik, idolaters or polytheists, believing in the Trinity). (Quran 5:5, 60:10)

Prohibited marriage partners

1)    Marriage between people of the same sex

2)    Marriage between a man and his sister, half-sister, foster sister, mother, stepmother, foster mother, wife’s mother, aunt, grandmother, great aunt, great-grandmother, etc. (in Yoruba land in Nigeria, in some cases the eldest son inherits the youngest wife of his father)

3)    Marriage between a woman and her father, stepfather (unless his marriage to her mother was not consummated), husband’s biological father, uncle, grandfather, great uncle, great-grandfather, etc.

4)    Marrriage of a man with women who are sisters or stepsisters or foster sisters of each other (except if marrying one who was separated from her husband by divorce or death)

Note: Marriage between cousins is not prohibited. As the Prophet married his 6-years old niece.

‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE; Arabic: عائشة‎‎, or Aishah) was one of Muhammad’s very first wives. In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title “Mother of the Believers” per the description of Muhammad’s multiple wives in the Qur’an.

Aisha had an important role in early Islamic history, both during Muhammad’s life and after his death. In Sunni tradition, Aisha is thought to be scholarly and inquisitive. She contributed to the spread of Muhammad’s message and served the Muslim community for 44 years after his death. She is also known for narrating 2210 hadiths, not just on matters related to the Prophet’s private life, but also on topics such as inheritance, pilgrimage, and eschatology. Her intellect and knowledge in various subjects, including poetry and medicine, were highly praised by early luminaries such as al-Zuhri and her student Urwa ibn al-Zubayr.

Her father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph to succeed Muhammad, and after two years was succeeded by Umar. During the time of the third caliph Uthman, Aisha had a leading part in the opposition that grew against him, though she did not agree either with those responsible for his assassination nor with the party of Ali. During the reign of Ali, she wanted to avenge Uthman’s death, which she attempted to do in the Battle of the Camel. She participated in the battle by giving speeches and leading troops on the back of her camel. She ended up losing the battle, but her involvement and determination left a lasting impression. Afterwards, she lived quietly in Medina for more than twenty years, took no part in politics, became reconciled to Ali and did not oppose caliph Mu’awiya.

The majority of traditional hadith sources state that Aisha was married to Muhammad at the age of six, but she stayed in her parents’ home until the age of nine, when she started to menstruate, or, according to Ibn Hisham, when the marriage was consummated with Muhammad, then 53, in Medina.

The Shiites have a generally negative view of Aisha. They accuse her of hating Ali and defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the Camel, when she fought men from Ali’s army in Basra.

Aisha remained Muhammad’s favorite wife throughout his life. When he became ill and suspected that he was probably going to die, he began to ask his wives whose apartment he was to stay in next. They eventually figured out that he was trying to determine when he was due with Aisha, and they then allowed him to retire there. He remained in Aisha’s apartment until his death, and his last breath was taken as he lay in the arms of Aisha, his most beloved wife.

Polygamy

According to sharia law, Muslims are allowed to practice polygyny. According to the Quran, a man may have up to four legal wives at any one time.

The husband is required to treat all wives equally. If a man fears that he will not be able to meet these conditions then he is not allowed more than one wife.

“If he fears that he shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two, or three, or four; but if he fear that he shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or that which your right hands possess. That will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.” (Quran 4:3).

Rarely, a bride-to-be may include terms in her marriage contract that require monogamy for her husband.

Polyandry for women is forbidden under sharia law; that is a woman may not have more than one husband at the same time (and may not marry a woman).

Muhammad’s wives or Wives of Muhammad were the thirteen women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muslims refer to them as Mothers of the Believers (Arabic: أمهات المؤمنين Ummahāt al-Muʾminīn). Muslims use the term prominently before or after referring to them as a sign of respect. (The term is derived from Quran 33:6):

“The Prophet is closer to the believers than their selves, and his wives are (as) their mothers.”

Muhammad’s life is traditionally delineated as two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, in western Arabia, from the year 570 to 622, and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the Hijra (migration to Medina).

A burning question for infidels is: “If the Quran allows a Muslim man to keep maximum 4 wives, why did Prophet Muhammad have more than many more than 4?

Usually, the answer by Muslim scholars is: “First and foremost, Quran itself makes a distinction between the Prophet and the rest of the Muslims, some of the orders in Quran refer only to the prophet and it also endorses all actions of the prophet:

1)    Your friend (Muhammad) was not astray, nor was he deceived.

2)    Nor was he speaking out of a personal desire.

3)    It was divine inspiration.

4)    Dictated by the Most Powerful.

Therefore there is no contradiction.

islam marriages

The following lists of women in Muhammad’s life are based on official and reliable Islamic sources. Because there were so many women, some of whom had only a very brief association with him, it is possible that this number still falls short of the real total.

For details and sources please, see:

https://wikiislam.net/…/List_of_Muhammads_Wives_and_Concubines

 

Wives and Concubines

 

No. Name Status Date Details Notable Early Sources
1 Khadijah bint Khuwaylid Married July 595. She was a wealthy merchant from Mecca who employed the 24-year-old Muhammad and then proposed marriage. She was the mother of six of his children and a key character in the earliest development of Islam. She was Muhammad’s only wife as long as she lived. She died in April 620. ·         Ibn Ishaq[4]

·         Ibn Hisham[5]

·         Al-Tabari[6]

·         Ibn Sa’d[7]

2 Sawda bint Zam’a Married, though with limited rights. May 620. She was a tanner who had been an early convert to Islam. Muhammad married her at a time when he was unpopular and bankrupt. He considered divorcing her when, as the oldest and plainest of his wives (described as “fat and very slow”), she no longer attracted him, but she persuaded him to keep her in the house in exchange for never sleeping with her again (she gave up her turn to Aisha). ·         Bukhari[8]

·         Ibn Ishaq[9]

·         Ibn Hisham[10]

·         Al-Tabari[11]

·         Ibn Sa’d[12]

3 Aisha bint Abi Bakr Married Contracted May 620 but first consummated in April or May 623. She was the daughter of Muhammad’s best friend and head evangelist Abu Bakr. Muhammad selected the six-year-old Aisha in preference to her teenaged sister, and she remained his favourite wife. She contributed a major body of information to Islamic law and history. The paedophilic aspect of this relationship has institutionalised such marriages within Islam. ·         Ibn Ishaq[13]

·         Ibn Hisham[14]

·         Al-Tabari[15]

·         Ibn Sa’d[16]

4 Hafsa bint Umar Married January or February 625. She was the daughter of Muhammad’s wealthy friend Umar. Hafsa was the custodian of the autograph-text of the Qur’an, which was actually somewhat different from the standard Qur’an of today. ·         Ibn Ishaq[17]

·         Ibn Hisham[18]

·         Al-Tabari[19]

·         Ibn Sa’d[20]

5 Zaynab bint Khuzayma Married February or March 625. She was a middle-class widow known as “Mother of the Poor” because of her commitment to charity work. She died in October 625. ·         Ibn Hisham[21]

·         Al-Tabari[22]

·         Ibn Sa’d[23]

6 Hind (Umm Salama) bint Abi Umayya Married April 626. An attractive widow with four young children, Hind had been rejected by her aristocratic family in Mecca because they were so hostile to Islam. Her tact and practical wisdom sometimes mitigated Muhammad’s cruelties. She was a notable teacher of Islamic law and a partisan of Ali. ·         Ibn Ishaq[24]

·         Ibn Hisham[25]

·         Al-Tabari[26]

·         Ibn Sa’d[27]

7 Zaynab bint Jahsh Married March 627. An early convert to Islam, Zaynab was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah. She was also the Prophet’s biological cousin. When Muhammad became infatuated with Zaynab, Zayd was pressured into a divorce. To justify marrying her, Muhammad announced new revelations that (1) an adopted son did not count as a real son, so Zaynab was not his daughter-in-law, and (2) as a prophet, he was allowed more than the standard four wives. Zaynab excelled at leather-crafts. ·         Ibn Ishaq[28]

·         Ibn Hisham[29]

·         Al-Tabari[30]

·         Ibn Sa’d[31]

8 Rayhana bint Zayd ibn Amr Sexual slavery May 627. Her first husband was one of the 600-900 Qurayza men whom Muhammad beheaded in April 627. He enslaved all the women and selected Rayhana for himself because she was the most beautiful. When she refused to marry him, he kept her as a concubine instead. She died shortly before Muhammad in 632. ·         Ibn Ishaq[32]

·         Al-Tabari[33]

·         Ibn Sa’d[34]

9 Juwayriyah bint Al-Harith Married January 628. The daughter of an Arab chief, she was taken prisoner when Muhammad attacked her tribe. Muhammad did not make a habit of marrying his war-captives, but Aisha claimed that Juwayriyah was so beautiful that men always fell in love with her at first sight. ·         Ibn Ishaq[35]

·         Ibn Hisham[36]

·         Al-Tabari[37]

·         Ibn Sa’d[38]

10 Ramlah (Umm Habiba) bint Abi Sufyan Married July 628 (following a proxy wedding earlier in the year) She was a daughter of Abu Sufyan, the Meccan chief who led the resistance against Muhammad, but she had been a teenaged convert to Islam. This marriage offset some of Muhammad’s political humiliation in the Treaty of Hudaybiya by demonstrating that he could command the loyalty of his adversary’s own daughter. Ramlah was devoted to Muhammad and quick to pick quarrels with people who were not. ·         Ibn Ishaq[39]

·         Ibn Hisham[40]

·         Al-Tabari[41]

·         Ibn Sa’d[42]

11 Safiyah bint Huyayy Married July 628. She was the beautiful daughter of a Jewish chief, Huyayy ibn Akhtab. Muhammad married her on the day he defeated the last Jewish tribe in Arabia, only hours after he had supervised the slaying of Kinana her second husband. His earlier victims had included her father, brother, first husband, three uncles and several cousins. This marriage was of no benefit to Safiyah’s defeated tribe, who were banished from Arabia a few years later; its real political significance was that Safiyah’s presence in Muhammad’s household was an open demonstration that he had defeated the Jews. ·         Ibn Ishaq[43]

·         Ibn Hisham[44]

·         Al-Tabari[45]

·         Ibn Sa’d[46]

12 Maymunah bint Al-Harith Married February 629. She was a middle-class widow from Mecca who proposed marriage to Muhammad. A placid woman who kept a very tidy house, Maymunah was completely obsessed with rules and rituals. ·         Ibn Ishaq[47]

·         Ibn Hisham[48]

·         Al-Tabari[49]

·         Ibn Sa’d[50]

13 Mariyah bint Shamoon al-Quptiya Sexual slavery c. June 629. She was one of several slaves whom the Governor of Egypt sent as a present to Muhammad. He kept her as a concubine despite the objections of his official wives, who feared her beauty. Mariyah bore Muhammad a son, Ibrahim. ·         Ibn Ishaq[51]

·         Al-Tabari[52]

·         Ibn Sa’d[53]

14 Mulayka bint Kaab Divorced January 630. Her family resisted the Muslim invasion of Mecca. Needing to appease the conqueror, they gave him the beautiful Mulayka as a bride. When she realised that Muhammad’s army had killed her father, she demanded a divorce, which he granted her. She died a few weeks later. ·         Al-Tabari[54]

·         Ibn Sa’d[55]

15 Fatima al-Aliya bint Zabyan al-Dahhak Divorced February or March 630. She was the daughter of a minor chief who had converted to Islam. Muhammad divorced her after only a few weeks “because she peeked at men in the mosque courtyard.” Fatima had to work for the rest of her life as a dung-collector, and she outlived all Muhammad’s widows. ·         Al-Tabari[56]

·         Ibn Sa’d[57]

16 Asma bint Al-Numan Divorced June or July 630. She was a princess from Yemen whose family hoped the marriage alliance would ward off a military invasion from Medina. But Muhammad divorced her before consummation after Aisha tricked her into reciting the divorce formula. Asma later married a brother of Umm Salama. ·         Ibn Hisham[58]

·         Al-Tabari[59]

·         Ibn Sa’d[60]

17 Al-Jariya Sexual slavery After 627. She was a domestic slave belonging to Zaynab bint Jahsh, who made Muhammad a present of her. She seems to have been an “unofficial” concubine who did not have a regular turn on his roster. ·         Ibn al-Qayyim[61]
18 Amra bint Yazid Divorced c. 631. She was a Bedouin of no political importance. Muhammad divorced her before consummation when he saw she had symptoms of leprosy. ·         Ibn Ishaq[62]

·         Ibn Hisham[63]

·         Al-Tabari[64]

·         Ibn Sa’d[65]

19 Tukana al-Quraziya Sexual slavery Unknown, but probably in the last months of Muhammad’s life. She was a member of the defeated Qurayza tribe whom Muhammad selected as one of his personal slaves. She appears to have been another “unofficial” concubine without a regular turn on the roster. After Muhammad’s death, she married Abbas. ·         Majlisi[66]

·         Ibn al-Qayyim.[67]

 

Engagements and Broken Contracts

 

No. Name Date Details Notable early sources
1 Ghaziya (Umm Sharik) bint Jabir Early 627. She was a poor widow with dependent children. She sent Muhammad a proposal of marriage, and he agreed to the contract. However, when he met her in person, he saw that, although attractive, she was “old”, and he divorced her immediately. She never remarried. ·         Ibn Hisham[68]

·         Al-Tabari[69]

·         Ibn Sa’d[70]

2 Khawla bint Hudhayl Probably mid- or late-627. She was a princess from the powerful Christian Taghlib tribe in northern Arabia. Her uncle arranged the marriage, which was expected to be politically advantageous on both sides. Muhammad signed the contract, but Khawla died on her journey to Medina, before they met in person. ·         Al-Tabari[71]

·         Ibn Sa’d[72]

3 Sharaf bint Khalifa Probably mid- or late-627. She was an aunt of Khawla bint Hudhayl (above). After Khawla’s death, the family tried to substitute Sharaf. In one tradition, Sharaf also died before consummation. In another tradition, Muhammad changed his mind and broke off the contract. ·         Al-Tabari[73]

·         Ibn Sa’d[74]

4 Layla bint al-Khutaym After 627. One of the first converts in Medina, Layla asked Muhammad to marry her so that her clan, the Zafar, would be the most closely allied to the Prophet. He agreed. However, Layla’s family warned her that she was too “jealous and whip-tongued” to adapt well to polygamy, which would cause political problems for the whole community. Under this pressure, Layla broke off the engagement. ·         Al-Tabari[75]

·         Ibn Sa’d[76]

5 Umm Habib bint Al-Abbas After March 630. She was Muhammad’s cousin. He saw her as a baby crawling around and remarked, “If I am alive when she grows up, I will marry her.” He changed his mind when he found out that her father had been his foster-brother and died soon afterwards. ·         Ibn Ishaq.[77]

·         Al-Tabari.[78]

·         Ibn Sa’d.[79]

6 Sana al-Nashat bint Rifaa (Asma) ibn As-Salt c. April 630. She was the daughter of a Muslim warrior who hoped to advance his career by becoming Muhammad’s father-in-law. Muhammad signed the contract, but Sana died before the marriage could be consummated. ·         Al-Tabari[80]

·         Ibn Sa’d[81]

7 Umra bint Rifaa c. May 630. She was the sister of Sana (above). After Sana died, their father tried to interest Muhammad in Umra. At first he agreed, but he later changed his mind, ostensibly because Rifaa boasted that Umra “has never known a day’s illness in her life.” ·         Ibn Sa’d[82]
8 Bint Jundub ibn Damra of Janda’a Unknown. Nothing is known about this woman except that Muhammad contracted marriage with her but divorced her before consummation. ·         Ibn Sa’d[83]
9 Jamra bint Al-Harith c. 631 She proposed marriage to Muhammad, and he accepted. Her father informed him that she suffered from a serious disease, whereupon Muhammad broke off the engagement. According to the Muslim chroniclers, her father arrived home only to find that she really had been afflicted with leprosy. ·         Al-Tabari[84]
10 Al-Shanba’ bint Amr January 632. She was from a Bedouin tribe who appeared friendly to Muhammad but who had also been friends of the Qurayza tribe. Al-Shanba’ insulted Muhammad on the first day by implying that he was not a true prophet, and he divorced her immediately. ·         Al-Tabari[85]
11 Qutayla (Habla) bint Qays May 632. She was a cousin of Asma bint Al-Numan, and the Yemenites sent her to Muhammad as a substitute bride. He signed the marriage contract but he died before Qutayla arrived in Medina. As soon as she heard that he was dead, she apostated from Islam. Soon afterwards she married an Arab chief who was a leader in the Apostasy Wars. ·         Al-Tabari[86]

·         Ibn Sa’d[87]

12 Mary, mother of Jesus The Afterlife. Muhammad said that Allah had wedded him in Heaven to the Virgin Mary, who was one of the four perfect women. The Qur’an refers several times to Mary, praising her chastity and affirming the virgin birth of Jesus. Muhammad said she lived in a beautiful jewelled palace in Paradise next to Khadijah’s. ·         Qur’an[88]

·         Bukhari[89]

·         Muslim[90]

·         Majlisi[91]

13 Queen Asiya of Egypt The Afterlife. Muhammad said that Allah had wedded him in Heaven to Queen Asiya, who was one of the four perfect women. The Qur’an tells how Asiya rescued the infant Moses from the evil Pharaoh, and how Pharaoh later tortured his wife to death for her monotheism. Muhammad said that Asiya’s palace in Heaven was on the other side of Khadijah’s. ·         Qur’an[92]

·         Muslim[93]

·         Ibn Kathir[94]

·         Majlisi[95]

14 Kulthum bint Amram The Afterlife. Muhammad originally believed that Maryam the sister of Moses and Maryam the mother of Jesus were one and the same. When he realised his mistake, he apparently over-corrected by deciding that Moses’ sister was not even named Maryam. He renamed her Kulthum (“Chubby Cheeks”) and said that Allah had wedded her to him in Heaven. He did not say that she was a perfect woman or that she lived next to Khadijah. ·         Qur’an[96]

·         Muslim[97]

·         Majlisi[98]

 

Refused Proposals

 

No. Name Date Details Notable early sources
1 Fakhita (Umm Hani) bint Abi Talib before 595;

January 630;

c. 631

Muhammad proposed to his cousin Fakhita, but her father married her off to a wealthy Makhzumite poet.

Nearly forty years later, after Muhammad conquered Mecca, Fakhita’s husband fled rather than convert to Islam, causing an automatic divorce. Muhammad proposed to Fakhita again, but she refused, saying she could not be equally fair to a new husband and her young children.

Later still, Fakhita came to Muhammad, saying her children had grown up and she was finally ready to marry him; but he said she was too late.

·         Ibn Ishaq[99]

·         Al-Tabari[100]

·         Ibn Sa’d[101]

2 “As Many Wives as You Want” c.618-619. The chiefs of Mecca offered Muhammad “as many wives as you want in marriage,” together with wealth, political power and the services of a competent exorcist, if only he would stop insulting their gods. Muhammad refused this offer, which was made while Khadijah was still alive. ·         Al-Tabari[102]
3 Habiba bint Sahl c. 623. Habiba was a prominent member of the Najjar clan in Medina. When the chief died with no obvious heir, Muhammad proposed to Habiba. His companions warned him that the women of Medina were not used to polygamy and that the men were very jealous for the happiness of their daughters; if this marriage turned out badly, key citizens might withdraw their support from Islam. Muhammad retracted his proposal, but the Najjar clan made him their chief anyway. ·         Ibn Ishaq[103]

·         Ibn Sa’d[104]

·         Abu Dawud[105]

·         Muwatta[106]

4 Al-Ansariya After 625. This unnamed woman proposed to Muhammad in Hafsa’s presence. Hafsa decried the shame of a woman who would throw herself at a man, but Muhammad retorted, “She is better than you because she wanted me while you only find fault.” He refused the proposal, but promised the woman a reward in Paradise for asking.

In fact several ansar women are said to have proposed to Muhammad; while this example is anonymous, it clearly refers to a woman who is distinct from Layla bint Khutaym.

·         Majlisi[107]
5 Khawla bint Hakim After 627. This is the same Khawla bint Hakim who arranged Muhammad’s marriages to Aisha and Sawda. Her first husband was Hafsa’s uncle, and their elder son fought at Badr. After being widowed, Khawla asked Muhammad to marry her, but he refused without giving a reason. However, he found her a new husband the same day. ·         Ibn Ishaq[108]

·         Bukhari[109]

·         Ibn Sa’d[110]

·         Ibn Kathir[111]

6 Dubaa bint Amir After 627. Dubaa was a wealthy noblewoman to whom Muhammad sent a marriage proposal when he heard about her beautiful long hair that filled a whole room when she sat down. But by the time she accepted him, he had been advised that she was “elderly” (her grown-up son had been born from her third marriage) so he retracted his proposal before he had even met her. ·         Al-Tabari[112]

·         Ibn Sa’d[113]

7 Izza bint Abi Sufyan After July 628. She was the sister of Muhammad’s wife Ramlah. Ramlah proposed Izza as a bride, “since, as I cannot be your only wife, I would like to share my good fortune with my sister.” But Muhammad said he could not marry two sisters concurrently. ·         Muslim[114]
8 Durrah bint Abi Salama After July 628. She was the daughter of Muhammad’s wife Hind. Another wife, Ramlah, noticed that Muhammad admired Durrah and asked if he intended to marry her. He replied that he could not marry his stepdaughter; and besides, her father had been his foster-brother. On the day Muhammad died, Durrah was only six years old. ·         Muslim[115]
9 Umama bint Hamza After March 630. She was Muhammad’s cousin and said to be the prettiest girl in the family. Ali proposed her as a bride while she was still a child, but Muhammad said that he could not marry her because her father had been his foster-brother. She later married his stepson, Salama ibn Abi Salama. ·         Ibn Sa’d[116]
10 Safiyah bint Bashshama September 630. She was a war-captive from Mesopotamia. Muhammad asked her to marry him, but when she said she wanted to return to her husband, he allowed her family to ransom her. It is said that her family cursed her for placing her personal happiness above the political needs of the tribe. ·         Al-Tabari[117]

·         Ibn Sa’d[118]

 

Islamic sexual jurisprudence concerns the Islamic laws of sexuality in Islam, as largely predicated on the Qur’an, the sayings of Muhammad (hadith) and the rulings of religious leaders’ (fatwa) confining sexual activity to marital relationships between men and women. While most traditions discourage celibacy, all encourage strict chastity and modesty with regard to any relationships between genders, holding forth that their intimacy as perceived within Islam – encompassing a swath of life broader than sexual activity – is largely reserved for marriage. This sensitivity to gender difference and modesty outside of marriage can be seen in current prominent aspects of Islam, such as interpretations of Islamic dress and degrees of gender segregation.

While prohibitions against extramarital sex are strong, sexual activity itself is not a taboo subject. Permissible sexual relationships are described in Quran and Hadith as great wells of love and closeness. Even after marriage, there are limitations: a man should not have intercourse during his wife’s menstruation and during pregnancy and afterbirth periods. He is also considered to be sinning when penetrating anally. Actions and behaviors such as abortion (other than for medical risk to the pregnant woman) and homosexuality are also strictly forbidden and punishable by stoning to death the woman and sometimes lashing the man; contraceptive use is permitted for birth control.

In case of rape, the woman is usually severely punished as she had sex before or outside marriage.

A Dutch woman was detained in Qatar for adultery after she told police she had been raped

The 22-year-old scholar, who was on holiday, was drugged in a Doha hotel and woke up in an unfamiliar flat, where she realized she had been raped, her lawyer said.

She was arrested and out in jail till three months later on suspicion of having sex outside of marriage. She was convicted to 16 months in jail but was then expelled and an unwelcome visitor to Qatar for the rest of her life. The alleged rapist was also held briefly, but testified their sex had been consensual. According to Sharia law, the testimony of a man weighs in more than that of a woman. Inshallah.

A modern skyline does not always mean an adjusted worldview and embracing Human Rights

The 2022 FIFA World Cup is scheduled to be the 22nd edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international men’s football championship contested by the national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Qatar in 2022.

Qatar would be the first Arab country to host the World Cup and this would be the first time the World Cup would be held in the Middle East region. The format has not been announced, but under the current format, the tournament would involve 32 national teams, including the host nation.

This will mark the first World Cup not to be held in June or July the tournament is instead scheduled for late November. It is to be played in a reduced timeframe of around 28 days, with the final being held on 18 December 2022, which is also Qatar National Day.

Severe accusations of corruption have been made relating to how Qatar won the right to host the event. FIFA completed an internal investigation into these allegations and a report cleared Qatar of any wrongdoing, but the chief investigator Michael Garcia has since described FIFA’s report on his inquiry as “materially incomplete and erroneous”. On May 27, 2015, Swiss federal prosecutors opened an investigation into corruption and money laundering related to the awarding of the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Their report is devastating for the Royals of Qatar

On 7 June 2015, it was announced that Qatar would possibly no longer be eligible to host the event, if evidence of bribery was proven. According to Domenico Scala, the head of FIFA’s Audit And Compliance Committee: “Should there be evidence that the awards to Qatar and Russia came only because of bought votes, then the awards could be cancelled”.

Qatar has faced strong criticism due to the treatment of foreign workers involved in preparation for the world cup, with Amnesty International referring to “forced labor” and stating that workers have been suffering human rights abuses, despite worker welfare standards being drafted in 2014.

Also, female tourists and academics visiting conferences have been treated badly under archaic laws and incarcerated for reasons that are against Human Rights.

 

https://wikiislam.net/…/List_of_Muhammads_Wives_and_Concubines

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aisha

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36508590

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/06/13/middleeast/qatar-dutch-woman-rape-report-jail/

 

 

 

 

 

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